1. Meristem culture. The meristem is the where the plant is actively growing, and the cells are dividing. The meristem is usually free of viruses and other pathogens, so meristem culture is used to obtain a disease free clone.
2. Callus culture. The plant tissue is induced to form undifferentiated growth or a callus, then induced to differentiate into the various organs by finding the proper balance of hormones. In meristem culture organs are already differentiated, so epidermal cells give rise to more epidermal cells. In callus culture any cell could become an epidermal cell or any other organ. Auxin is used to promote roots, and cytokinin promotes shoots.
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